Manufacturing Execution Systems
이자료는 MESA에서 퍼온 글과 그림입니다.
Manufacturing Execution Systems are an essential component of operations in today's competitive business environments, which require greater production efficiency and effectiveness. MES focuses on the valuing-adding processes, helping to reduce manufacturing cycle time, improve product quality, reduce WIP, reduce or eliminate paperwork between shifts, reduce lead time, and empowering plant operations staff. This section includes an overview of MES and quotes from users.
Definition of MES
"Manufacturing Execution Systems deliver information enabling the optimization of production activities from order launch to finished goods. Using current and accurate data, MES guides, initiates, responds to, and reports on plant activities as they occur. The resulting rapid response to changing conditions, coupled with a focus on reducing non-value-added activities, drives effective plant operations and processes. MES improves the return on operational assets as well as on-time delivery, inventory turns, gross margin, and cash flow performance. MES provides mission-critical information about production activities across the enterprise and supply chain via bi-directional communications."
The concept of MES is widely recognized and used in manufacturing sectors such as automotive, semiconductor, electronics, food processing, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, medical devices, textiles. Elements such as scheduling, maintenance management, quality, and time and attendance fall within the scope of MES and are used in all industries.
MES is of particular value to operational management. Functions include resource allocation and status, dispatching production units, data collection/acquisition, quality management, maintenance management, performance analysis, operations/detail scheduling, document control, labor management, process management and product tracking and genealogy. These functions are described more fully below.
Resource Allocation and Status: Manages resources including machines, tools, labor skills, materials, other equipment, and other entities such as documents that must be available in order for work to start at the operation. It provides detailed history of resources and insures that equipment is properly set up for processing and provides status real time. The management of these resources includes reservation and dispatching to meet operation scheduling objectives.
Operations/Detail Scheduling: Provides sequencing based on priorities, attributes, characteristics, and/or recipes associated with specific production units at an operation such as shape, color sequencing, or other characteristics that, when scheduled in sequence properly, minimize set-up. It is finite and it recognizes alternative and overlapping/parallel operations in order to calculate, in detail, exact time of equipment loading adjusted to shift patterns.
Dispatching Production Units: Manages flow of production units in the form of jobs, orders, batches, lots, and work orders. Dispatch information is presented in the sequence in which the work needs to be done and changes in real time as events occur on the factory floor. It has the ability to alter the prescribed schedule on the factory floor. Rework and salvage processes are available, as well as the ability to control the amount of work in process at any point with buffer management.
Document Control: Controls records/forms that must be maintained with the production unit, including work instructions, recipes, drawings, standard operation procedures, part programs, batch records, engineering change notices, shift-to-shift communication, as well as the ability to edit "as planned" and "as built" information. It sends instructions down to the operations, including providing data to operators or recipes to device controls. It might also include the control and integrity of environmental, health and safety regulations, and ISO information such as Corrective Action procedures. Storage of historical data is provided.
Data Collection/Acquisition: This function provides an interface link to obtain the inter-operational production and parametric data that populate the forms and records that were attached to the production unit. The data may be collected from the factory floor either manually or automatically from equipment in an up-to-the-minute time frame.
Labor Management: Provides status of personnel in an up-to-the-minute time frame. Includes time and attendance reporting, certification tracking, as well as the ability to track indirect activities such as material preparation or tool room work as a basis for activity based costing. It may interact with resource allocation to determine optimal assignments.
Quality Management: Provides real time analysis of measurements collected from manufacturing to assure proper product quality control and to identify problems requiring attention. It may recommend action to correct the problem, including correlating the symptom, actions and results to determine the cause. May include SPC/SQC tracking and management of off-line inspection operations, and analysis from a laboratory information management system (LIMS) could also be included.
Process Management: Monitors production and either automatically corrects or provides decision support to operators for correcting and improving in-process activities. These activities may be inter-operational and focus specifically on machines or equipment being monitored and controlled, as well as intra-operational, which is tracking the process from one operation to the next. It may include alarm management to make sure factory personnel are aware of process changes that are outside acceptable tolerances. It provides interfaces between intelligent equipment and MES, possibly through Data Collection/Acquisition.
Maintenance Management: Tracks and directs the activities to maintain the equipment and tools to insure their availability for manufacturing and insure scheduling for periodic or preventive maintenance. Also provides the response (alarms) to immediate problems. It maintains a history of past events or problems to aid in diagnosing problems.
Product Tracking and Genealogy: Provides the visibility to where work is at all times and its disposition. Status information may include who is working on it; components, materials by supplier, lot, serial number, current production conditions, and any alarms, rework, or other exceptions related to the product. The on-line tracking function creates a historical record, as well. This record allows traceability of components and usage of each end product.
Performance Analysis: Provides up-to-the-minute reporting of actual manufacturing operations results along with the comparison to past history and expected business results. Performance results include such measurements as resource utilization, resource availability, product unit cycle time, conformance to schedule and performance to standards. It may include SPC/SQC. Performance Analysis draws on information gathered from different functions that measure operating parameters. These results may be prepared as a periodic report or presented on-line as current evaluation of performance.
"MES is one of the most valuable software innovations to become available to manufacturing enterprises in recent years. Market history and current projections suggest a growth rate of 40% for the integrated MES market."
"I wouldn't have believed it myself two years ago. Our implementation of MES technology really became an integral part of our philosophy of continuous improvement. As a result, we were able to improve inventory turns from four to 36 in raw brass, our major inventory investment. And, on-time delivery ratings and business volume increased at the same time."
"We have been able to meet and even exceed our production and quality initiatives as a result of an optimum mix of solutions integrated through a manufacturing execution system (MES). The results have been astounding. Strategic use of MES technology has achieved overall improvements in quality control, reduction in capital expenditures and flexibility in managing rapid and cost-efficient product changeovers."
"Before implementing MES technology, we were two or three days behind in getting updated information. Now, we schedule and dispatch work in real time, and the system sends electronic messages to our foremen when a work center falls below a specified percent of the plant's standards. As a result, we've been able to cut our lead times from 12 to five weeks, boosted on-time deliveries significantly, and business is up nearly 50 percent."
"In three months, using MES methodologies, [we] implemented master production scheduling, MRP, shop floor controls, purchasing, job costing, inventory...and accounting, with 35 users accessing the system at any given time. Practically every issue that arose was resolved within two hours, and for a quick conversion, we needed that kind of response."
"MES technology has provided us with the framework necessary for the design and implementation of controls with have indeed yielded dramatic improvements in product quality, cycle time, performance to mix, and cost. These results may be achievable to some degree without an integrated MES, but I believe it is fair to say the benefits would be realized in a less than timely manner and the cost of implementation would be significantly higher."
"MES methodologies helped us understand how our complex manufacturing environment could be modeled to achieve our business goals related to quality, on-time delivery and profitability. We will be able to continually improve our manufacturing operations."
"If Hitachi Zosen is bringing [MES technology] to the Japanese, then it must be rather effective, given that the Japanese have shown an incredible knack for effective manufacturing."